Язык . Language

Conditions of implementation in Kyrgyzstan

Successful wide dissemination of biogas technologies requires taking into account interfering relationships between existing climate, social, economical and ecological conditions, increasing public and political awareness and state support.

Climate conditions
Biogas technology is feasible in principle under almost all climatic conditions, but costs increase for biogas production with sinking temperatures as either a heating system has to be installed, or a larger digester has to be built to increase the retention time. Unheated and un-insulated plants do not work satisfactory when the mean temperature is below 15 °C.
Low rainfall or seasonal water scarcity generally leads to less intensive systems of animal husbandry. Less dung is available in central locations. On the other hand high precipitation can lead to high groundwater levels, causing problems in construction and operation of biogas plants.
All natural characteristics of Kyrgyzstan – landscape, soils, water resources, flora and fauna, as well as social and economical conditions of life and activities of population are determined by the mountains. Peculiarity of country’s climate is lowering atmosphere pressure and temperatures (on average by 0,6°C per 100 meters) and increase in precipitation with increase in altitude.
Average yearly temperature in Kyrgyzstan is also lower than +15°C and biogas plants without heating and insulation will not be able to provide households with biogas and biofertilizer over the whole year.

It will be efficient to implement plants operating in mesophilic or thermophilic temperature ranges. Plants with insulation but without heating in which digestion process is carried out under the temperatures below 20°C can only provide small quantity of biogas. Temperature in digesters without heating is only by 1-2°C higher than the temperature of the earth and hey will efficiently work only during warm time of the year.

Economical conditions
In Kyrgyz Republic, where around 45% of the population is employed in agriculture and more than 80% of rural population is below the poverty line the most obvious obstacle to wide dissemination of biogas technology is the absence of necessary financial means. The majority of the rural population cannot afford the cost of investment for a biogas plant even if the payback period is short and economic benefits from the biogas plant apparent.
Poor population groups can not manage investment necessary for implementing a biogas plant
Endeavors of lowering the cost of constructing biogas plant have be undertaken together with developing of credit and other financial systems that would provide access to financial means required for constructing biogas plants. Wide dissemination of biogas plants is beneficial not only for the owners but for the society as a whole.
Macroeconomic assessment of viability of dissemination of biogas plants has to take into account positive effects in energy sector, increase in agricultural production, lowering the spending on public health and environment protection, increase in employment and substitution of imported has and fertilizer by self-produced equivalents.

Social conditions
Biogas plants not only support state economy and environment but also produces opportunities for improvement of living conditions and prosperity of local population. Sanitary conditions and public health are improved as well as quality of the agricultural produce, grown without application of chemicals. Due to decrease in cost of heating the existence of schools, libraries and clubs is supported. Employment and professional qualification of the rural population is also improved.
Biogas plants utilize waste and sewage and directly improve sanitary conditions for individual users and communities. Anaerobic digestion of waste also excludes open storage of manure and faeces and decontaminate the substrate during the fermentation. Therefore, biogas technologies increase the average life expectancy and decrease expenditures for medication and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, increasing work efficiency.

Political conditions
Wide production of biofertilizer and biogas in Kyrgyzstan will allow to reduce imports of fossil fuels and mineral fertilizers. Macro economically digestion of organic waste into biofertilizer for degraded agricultural soils and biogas production are of paramount importance. Taking into account existing economical conditions and benefits of implementing biogas technologies, state financial support can be seen as an investment directed at a future decrease of expenditures on with import of fossil fuels and mineral fertilizer, public health and sanitary expenditures and also w degradation of nature resources.
Examples of successful wide dissemination of biogas plants exist in American, European and Asian countries and were implemented through subsidy, lax credits for construction and operation of biogas plants, farmer training, opening of service centers allow t recommend taking similar measures in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Public and political awareness
Popularization of biogas technologies has to take place parallel to construction and implementation of biogas plants. Without raising the awareness of population of the Kyrgyz republic regarding advisability of implementation of biogas technologies, benefits and limitations of its implementation there will be no movement towards the dissemination among farmers.
At the same time, government awareness is also necessary. As the influence and aspects of biogas technologies have a direct relation to different government structures (for example, agriculture, environmental protection, energy, economy) it is necessary to identify and include all state structures as well as public sector into the process of dissemination of information about the biogas technologies and raising it’s status.

State support
For supporting wide dissemination of biogas technologies positively influencing state economy government can undertake the flowing measures:
• Pass a state Programme of implementing biogas technologies. Development of such as program initiated by Association “Farmer” is already in process.
• Create or alterate structural conditions for individual investment decisions in favor of biogas plants, e.g. more critical control of firewood consumption and tree felling, regulations concerning the treatment and disposal of substrates (waste water, faeces)
• Subsidize private, institutional and community biogas plants by means of grants or inexpensive credits
• Construct and operation of biogas plants as public utility enterprises especially as municipal community plants through appropriate support to the municipalities.