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Fodder additive

Biofertilizer is used in the world practice as active additives for increasing the fodder efficiency for animals. In the process of anaerobic digestion substrate is decontaminated from all kinds of pathogenic micro flora, especially if thermophilic temperature range is used. Moreover, digested slurry obtains new, positive from the point of view of fodder production, characteristics – concentration of protein is increased and it is enriched by vitamin B12 and other useful substances.
Industrial production of the protein and vitamin additives based on the digested in biogas plants organic waste is developed in Israel, the Philippines, Canada and USA, where the average cost of such additives amounts to 12 USD per ton [19].

Animal health and fodder content
Vital organism functions of animals are supported by regular intake of food that contains nutrient substances: fats, proteins, carbohydrates and mineral salts and vitamins. Nutrients are a source of energy that covers organism energy consumption and building materials that are used in the process of organism growth.
Proteins take a special place among nutrients necessary for animals as they can not be substituted with any other food substance. Deficiency in proteins stop normal organism development. Full value proteins mostly include animal protein but some plants (potatoes, beans, etc) contain full value proteins as well. Vitamins play a role of regulators of metabolism. At the moment around 20 vitamins necessary for animal organism have been distinguished and studied.
Vitamin B12 plays a special role. Deficiency of B12 can lead to growth disorders, decrease in assimilability (especially protein assimilability), anemia (tabes for ruminant animals), skin rigidity and inflammations. Deficiency of B12 vitamin lead to higher bird embryo and newly hatched chicken death rates. In case of prolonged B12 deficit, egg-laying is also decreased. Therefore from the point of view of cattle breeding animal fodder should contain all necessary basic elements in digestible form, set of microelements, have necessary amount of full value proteins and contain vitamins [19].

Necessity of fodder additives
Natural fodder often is not adequate in content of necessary substances. Plant fodder as a norm can not cover needs of animals in protein and vitamins. Therefore fish and bone flour, soy extracts are often added to fodder.

Biofertilizer as fodder additive
Digested in biogas plants manure can be used as a fodder additive because it contains all indispensable acids and many of the vitamins, especially vitamins of B group and is decontaminated in the process of fertilization and further processing. Overall content of amino acids in 1 kg of solid content of anaerobically processed cattle manure contains 210 and 240 gram under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature accordingly. Therefore the products of anaerobic digestion of animal excrements are an important source of protein fodder [18].

Preparation of a fodder additive
Technology of obtaining fodder concentrate has been developed and recommended for use by the Russian biochemistry institute named after A.N. Bach, and in Ukrainian science and research institute of spirit production.
It consists of digesting animal manure in a biogas plant, separation from the fermented slurry of rough residues (straw and so on) and dehydration of the fertilizer sediment. Fermented sediment is dried at a temperature of 60-70ºС and is grinded into flour. If kept in an light-tight packing it keeps its qualities for a long period of time.
From 1 ton of cattle manure it is possible to obtain 0,3 tons of fodder concentrate that contains 30 gram of pure B12 vitamin per year. This amount of concentrate can be used for enriching more than 1000 tons of fodder [19].

Dose of the fodder additive
According to recommendations of Ukrainian science and research institute of agriculture average norm for enriching fodder is 10-20 micro kg of В12 vitamin per 1 kg of solid fodder content. For more reliable results it is recommended to add 2,5 grams of dry vitamin concentrate per kg of fodder solid content [18].

Effect of adding biofertilizer concentrate to fodder
Research of using fertilizer concentrate as a fodder additive have been conducted in Latvia, Armenia, Ukraine and foreign countries. On “Ogre” farm (Latvia) in calf’s fodder have been added biofertilizer concentrate in quantity of 10 gram per kg of live weight. As a result, there has been an increase in calf’s weight of 20% and decrease in overall dry fodder demand by 6-14% and overall animal health has increased.